An Online Compendium of News & Clinical Science ARCHIVED ITEMS

Disorders of Odor Perception offers links to the latest science and news about olfactory dysfunction. It is updated frequently. Newest items are at the top of each column.

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Anosmia & Hyposmia

Smell and taste impairment not significantly related to eating pleasure and appetite in older, independently living Italian adults. Read more.
Large-scale population study in South Korea links olfactory dysfunction to elevated risk of depressed mood and suicidal ideation. Read more.
Odor identification scores trend lower with lead exposure in elderly men. Read more.
Children with autism spectrum disorder fail to modulate sniff response to pleasant versus unpleasant odors. Read more.
Patients with impaired odor perception are more likely to be overweight or obese than controls. Read more.
Age-related macular degeneration is associated with impaired odor perception. Read more.
Volume of olfactory bulbs/tracts based on MRI, combined with olfactory measures, can distinguish Parkinson's disease from related disorders. Read more.
State and trait anxiety (but not smoking) linked to reduced olfactory ability. Read more.
Self-assessment of olfactory loss correlates with actual performance only at the level of total anosmia. Read more.
Parkinson's disease patients who smoke show less olfactory dysfunction than patients who never smoked or who no longer smoke. Read more.
Genome-wide analysis of older adults suggests SNPs at tau protein locus may link olfactory dysfunction to neurodegenerative diseases. Read more.
Mutation in TENMI gene linked to congenital general anosmia. Read more.
Large-scale study in Italy suggests sense of smell does not decrease linearly with age but forms 'juvenile,' 'mature,' and 'elder' phenotypes. Read more.
Olfactory performance scores can help discriminate Alzheimer's disease from dementia with Lewy bodies in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Read more.
Changes in olfactory sensitivity with age may be odor-specific. Read more.
Algorithm predicts extent of post-traumatic olfactory loss based on pattern of brain lesions. Read more.
Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is associated with faster disease progression. Read more.
Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women positively influences a limited number of olfactory and cognitive measures. Read more.
Smell dysfunction in first-degree relatives of patients with cleft lip or palate linked to morphology of upper nasal region. Read more.
Olfactory impairment reduces physical but not mental quality of life measures, with combined sensory impairments worsening the effect of a single-sense deficit. Read more.
Only three smells are necessary for an odor identification test with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Read more.
Neuroticism scores are higher in patients with olfactory dysfunction. Read more.
Lingering post-smell activation in orbitofrontal cortex observed in patients with multiple chemical sensitivity. Read more.
Consultation with ENT physician improves quality of life and olfactory measures in chronic rhinosinusitis patients. Read more.
Reduced olfactory function in obese women linked to higher levels of circulating endocannabinoids. Read more.
Comparison of two smell tests finds performance difference when used with children five to six years of age. Read more.
Radiation treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer associated with impaired smell and taste function. Read more.
Study suggests normosmic Parkinson's disease patients are a unique clinical phenotype with more benign course. Read more.
Olfactory bulb volume in Parkinson's disease not associated with disease severity or smell function. Read more.
Olfactory bulb volume increases and odor sensitivity improves after functional endoscopic sinus surgery for nasal polyps. Read more.
Five-year followup confirms African-Americans more likely than other groups to experience initial decline in olfactory function. Read more.
Atrophy in primary olfactory cortex and hippocampus correlates with smell loss in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dieseas. Read more.
Manganese exposure in teenagers linked to reduced odor perception and to changes in brain response and morphology. Read more.
New self-administered, computerized olfactory threshold test validated on patients with anosmia and hyposmia. Read more.
New test of odor identification and intensity validated for Taiwanese population. Read more.
Odor identification test shows correlations with age and Alzheimer's disease in Japanese population. Read more.
Plasma oxytocin levels may predict odor identification ability and negativity of odor response in patients with schizophrenia. Read more.
MRI confirms reduced/absent olfactory bulbs and hypoplastic olfactory sulci in congenital anosmics. Read more.
MRI study finds age, laterality, and task-specific effects of smell loss on olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sulcus depth. Read more.
Rapid maxillary expansion improves olfactory sensitivity in children. Read more.
Age-related trends in odor perception confirmed in large, cumulative ad hoc dataset. Read more.
Odor identification scores fail to predict transition from ultra-high risk status to schizophrenia but may predict poor functional outcome. Read more.
Study compares MRI results with chemosensory event-related potentials in patients with post-traumatic anosmia. Read more.
No specific histomorphological changes found in peripheral olfactory epithelium of schizophrenic patients relative to controls. Read more.
Olfactory event-related potentials are absent or reduced in young patients with multiple sclerosis. Read more.
Extended 32-item version of a commercial odor identification test shows high validity and test-retest reliability. Read more.
Anosmia, facial pain, and nasal obstruction in a 27-year-old woman with a large rhinolith. Read more.
Simultaneous anosmia and ageusia in a case of head trauma with frontobasal brain damage. Read more.
Sniffing four odors twice daily for twelve weeks improves sensitivity to these odors in healthy children. Read more.
SNPs in smell-related loci linked to expression of microtubule-associated protein tau in older adults. Read more.
Odor identification deficits linked to increased mortality risk even after controlling for multiple other factors. Read more.
Hunger enhances detection thresholds to food odors but not in a sensory-specific way. Read more.
No difference between saline and saline + budesonide in post-op treatment following sinus surgery. Read more.
After adjusting for confounding variables, no effect of nutritional status on olfaction in the elderly. Read more.
Clinical study finds preoperative corticosteroids improve olfactory outcome in nasal polyposis surgery. Read more.
Level of independent living determines chemosensory ability in the elderly separately from age. Read more.
Adults over 60 years old with highest consumption of fish and nuts have reduced odds of olfactory impairment. Read more.
Large prospective study finds endoscopic sinus surgery more effective than medical managment in resolving major symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. Read more.
CT scans and butanol threshold test may be useful in predicting postoperative smell recovery in chronic rhinosinusitis patients. Read more.
Mixed results in olfactory testing of blind and sighted subjects. Read more.
Patients at clinical high risk for schizophrenia did not differ from healthy controls on odor identification. Read more.
Laser surgery for nasolacrimal duct obstruction results in temporary reduction of olfactory function. Read more.
Longer olfactory training and changing odorants during training enhances success rate in patients with postinfectious olfactory loss. Read more.
Quality of life impact measured in patients with chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps. Read more.
Olfactory loss impairs perceived change in nasal patency from chewing menthol-containing gum. Read more.
Repeated sinus surgeries for nasal polyps reduce the likelihood of recovery of olfactory function. Read more.
Crenotherapy (treatment with hyperthermal water rich in mineral salts) improves smell in young and old subjects with hyposmia and chronic rhinosinusitus. Read more.
Possible altered sensory cell function in patients with schizophrenia. Read more.
Smell test results from Taiwanese population show differences from American norms. Read more.
Age-related increase in olfactory threshold tracks those in other sensory modalities. Read more.
Sublingual immunotherapy improves olfactory function and quality of life in allergic rhinitus patients. Read more.
Relative utility of sensory testing, MRI, and olfactory event-related potentials in evaluation of post-traumatic olfactory loss. Read more.
Variable effects of middle ear surgery on smell and taste function. Read more.
Compared to patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy, those with left side focus find odors less pleasant and harder to identify via left nostril. Read more.
Pain and anxiety during migraine is higher in patients with ictal osmophobia. Read more.
Orthonasal olfaction unaffected in adults with enlarged tonsils, but retronasal olfaction impaired in those with extreme hypertrophy. Read more.
Olfactory dysfunction associated with incidental Lewy body disease. Read more.
Panic disorder patients have higher olfactory sensitivity and greater odor awareness than healthy controls. Read more.
People with chronic halitosis show lower odor sensitivity and more frequent hyposmia than controls. Read more.
Subclinical atherosclerotic plaques associated with decline in odor identification ability. Read more.
Reduced nasal volume and cross-sectional area linked to poor olfactory function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Read more.
Olfactory bulb volume in Parkinson's disease patients not closely linked with olfactory function and clinical status. Read more.
Intranasal insulin produces immediate improvement in odor perception in patients with post-infectious hyposmia. Read more.
In patients with deviated septum, odor sensitivity, discrimination, and identification are lower on the narrower side. Read more.
Following gastric bypass surgery, 42% of patients experience changes in smell. Read more.
Migraine patients find odors more bothersome than controls; but show no change in olfactory acuity between baseline and active migraine. Read more.
Large-scale NSHAP study finds odor identification failure increases with age and the decline is more rapid among African-Americans. Read more.
Odor identification significantly lower in first trimester of pregnancy; 2nd and 3rd trimesters not different from non-pregnant controls. Read more.
In a sample of cognitively healthy people, 79% of those with measurable olfactory dysfunction self-reported normal sense of smell. Read more.
Olfaction is impaired in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Read more.
Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and systemic sclerosis show impaired olfaction. Read more.
Odor identification deficits linked to neurodegeneration and markers of Alzheimer's disease in the clinically normal elderly. Read more.
Smell recovery after surgery for nasal polyposis predicted by olfactory cleft opacity on CT scan. Read more.
Male patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease have greater olfactory deficits than do female patients. Read more.
Orally delivered THC raises olfactory thresholds and reduces odor discrimination performance in healthy volunteers. Read more.
Most effective pairwise test odorants identified in Japanese screening test for smell impairment. Read more.
The osmophobia and photophobia associated with migraine headaches may be related to different gene polymorphisms. Read more.
Structural MRI study links olfactory dysfunction in Bardet-Biedl syndrome to reduced gray matter volume. Read more.
Rasagiline improves olfactory function in early stage but not long-term Parksinson's disease. Read more.
Smell loss is less frequent in LRRK2 G2019S-associated form of Parkinson's disease. Read more.
Study finds recovery of odor perception following traumatic anosmia is improved by treatment with zinc gluconate. Read more.
Unilateral nasal obstruction is associated with significant reduction in size of ipsilateral olfactory bulb. Read more.
Olfactory impairment and cardiac sympathetic denervation are strongly associated in Parkinson's disease. Read more.
Odor identification impairment appears to be common to a variety of frontotemporal lobar degeneration subtypes. Read more.
Analysis of the 2011-2012 NHANES data suggests 10.6% of Americans experienced self-reported smell disturbance in the past year. Read more.
A bioinformatics approach identifies 152 substances with potential olfactory effects. Read more.
Olfactory dysfunction associated with cognitive impairment in eldery patients with type 2 diabetes. Read more.
Some migraineurs experience reduced ability to name odors during an attack. Read more.
Differences in odor memory performance by patients with unipolar major depression and those with Alzheimer's disease. Read more.
Rare case of primary nasal tuberculosis: 46-year-old woman presents with anosmia and nasal obstruction. Read more.
MRI shows gray matter loss in olfactory cortices of patients with idiopathic olfactory loss. Read more.
Olfactory impairment associated with frontal lobe injury in blast-injured combat troops. Read more.
Centripetal endoscopic sinus surgery produces sustained improvements in a series of 114 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Read more.
Subjective improvement found in post-viral olfactory loss at long-term follow-up (~33 months). Read more.
Olfactory dysfunction in first-degree relatives of patients with cleft lip and/or palate may be due to smaller upper nasal region. Read more.
Neurodegeneration in Anderson-Fabry disease is not accompanied by hyposmia. Read more.
Taste and smell alterations in lung cancer patients show gender differences and impact appetite and food enjoyment. Read more.
No effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on odor identification ability in patients with Parkinson's disease. Read more.
Nasal airflow-inducing manoeuvre in laryngectomy patients improves smell without respect to nasal endoscopy findings. Read more.
Reduced olfactory function associated with brain lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis. Read more.
Pilot study links flu vaccination to lower rate of olfactory dysfunction. Read more.
Smell sensitivity depends on molecular weight of the odor molecule for older but not for younger adults. Read more.
Endoscopic, CT scan, and sensory measures are correlated in pre- and post-surgical chronic rhinosinusitis patients. Read more.
Olfactory training restores smell loss and alters neural connectivity in olfactory-related brain areas. Read more.
Endoscopic sinus surgery and medical treatment produce comparable improvements in olfaction in chronic rhinosinusitus. Read more.
Olfactory dysfunction predicts early transition from idiopatic REM sleep behavior disorder to Lewy body disease. Read more.
Odor identification better than verbal memory performance in predicting cognitive decline in an urban population. Read more.
Mild taste and smell alterations common in patients investigated for lung cancer but at same rate for those with and without disease. Read more.
Perception of suprathreshold odor intensity is reduced in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Read more.
Primary and secondary olfactory cortical atrophy in Parkinson's disease correlates with smell dysfunction. Read more.
Poorer olfactory performance in patients with pemphigus vulgaris correlates with number of lesions. Read more.
Self-reported olfactory impairment is a significant predictor of dementia. Read more.
A history of smoking is associated with better olfaction among Parkinson's disease patients. Read more.
Olfactory ability discriminates Parkinson's disease from other tremor disorders. Read more.
Smell testing may differentiate frontotemporal dementia from major depressive disorder. Read more.
Impaired olfaction is associated with higher risk of delirium following cardic surgery. Read more.
A six-item, five-minute long, n-butanol olfactory threshold test has been developed for use with home-dwelling older adults. Read more.
Smell and taste disturbances linked to brain irradiation treatment for glioma. Read more.
Patients with idiopathic environmental intolerance show no fMRI difference to smell in olfactory brain areas. Read more.
Failure to find a link between smell function and nutritional status in the old and very old. Read more.
Food preference and intake of obese and normal weight women do not differ in response to odors of no-, low-, and high-energy foods. Read more.
Risk of hazardous events increases with degree of olfactory impairment; age, sex and race also significant factors. Read more.
Smell test modification validated for use with children 6 to 17 years of age. Read more.
Only 0.19% of patients with chemosensory dysfunction attribute it to flu vaccination; no association found between sense of smell and lifetime flu vaccinations. Read more.
Economic model suggests that routine brain MRI is not cost-effective in patients with idiopathic olfactory loss. Read more.
Adenotonsillectomy improves ortho- and retronasal olfaction in children with infectious and/or obstructive adenotonsillar disease. Read more.
Crohn's disease may be associated with abnormal odor perception. Read more.
Questionnaire study suggests that Lyme disease is associated with hyperosmia. Read more.
Large cohort study of patients with non-sinonasal-related olfactory dysfuncion finds post-infection and post-trauma cases most common. Read more.
Case study suggests new hypothesis: small olfactory bulbs may be a risk factor for olfactory loss after URT infection. Read more.
Olfactory thresholds and taste threshold for salt increase with body weight. Read more.
Olfactory function is impaired in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's). Read more.
In a Brazilian smell clinic chronic rhinosinusitis and rhinitis underly more cases of primary olfactory complaint than post-viral and post-trauma loss. Read more.
Failure to replicate a lateralized smell test for Alzheimer's disease. Read more.
High test-retest reliability at 17 days for a test of odor memory. Read more.
Cross-sectional and prospective study tracks olfactory loss and recovery in patients with differing levels of traumatic brain injury. Read more.
Normative data presented for Portuguese language version of odor identification test in Brazil. Read more.
Dreams of migraineurs are more likely to include taste and smell than dreams of tension headache patients and controls. Read more.
Patients in a major depressive episode find unpleasant smells more unpleasant and pleasant smell less pleasant. Read more.
Dietary salt intake is increased among peope with hypoamia. Read more.
Beck Depression Inventory scores show patient mood more severely affected in post-URI olfactory loss than in similar loss due to chronic sinusitis. Read more.
Confirmed: daily smell training improves olfactory function in patients with loss due to upper respiratory tract infection. Read more.
Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgical approach for skull base tumors results in impaired smell function. Read more.
Odor discimination and identification but not thresholds are significantly impaired in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 7. Read more.
Mild head injury in chidren results in a small but statistically significant reduction in odor sensitivity. Read more.
Osmophobia appears to be a marker differentiating migraine from tension-type headache. Read more.
Olfactory loss is associated with changes in brain activity during odor imagery. Read more.
Nasal airflow-inducing maneuver has potential to restore olfaction to pre-operative levels in laryngectomy patients. Read more.
The antifungal drug fluconazole has no effects on smell or taste in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. Read more.
Promising initial results from a newly developed test of retronasal olfactory function designed for a Turkish population. Read more.
Both conductive and sensorineural mechanisms may contribute to olfactory loss in chronic rhinosinusitis. Read more.
Odors do not impact motion sickness, but motion sickness may alter odor perception. Read more.
Odor perception and muscular patterns of swallowing may be altered in smokers. Read more.
Obsessive-complusive disorder patients are impaired on multiple measures of odor perception and show correlated volumetric changes in brain areas. Read more.
Odor perception indices may be markers of vulnerability to, and development of, psychosis. Read more.
A single-sample odor detection task is a sensitive and specific test for probably Alzheimer's disease. Read more.
Age-related changes in odor perception in a large representative sample of older U.S. adults. Read more.
Reduced odor sensitivity and its cognitive correlates explain age-related decline in odor identification performance. Read more.
Impact of olfactory dysfunction from flu or cold lasting 6 months or more quantified in Spanish patients. Read more.
Validation of Italian version of an odor identification test. Read more.
Use of strong fragrances may affect results of olfactory detection threshold determinations. Read more.
Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with decreased odor perception and reduced olfactory bulb volume. Read more.
Odor detection and identification performance are better at sea level than at high altitude (2,200m). Read more.
An individual with overexpression of KAL1 gene exhibits hyperosmia, along with ectrodactyly and other defects. Read more.
BehÁetís disease is associated with significant olfactory dysfunction. Read more.
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease associated with reduced volume of olfactory bulbs and tracts. Read more.
Nasal saline irrigation has no subjective or objective effect on odor perception. Read more.
Culturally adapted odor identification test differentiates Italian Parkinson's disease patients from controls. Read more.
Olfactory and taste receptors are down-regulated in prefrontal cortex of patients with chronic schizophrenia. Read more.
Odor identification and olfactory thresholds are impaired in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Read more.
Possible abnormality in hedonic response to odor may differentiate schizotypy from other psychiatric diagnoses. Read more.
Potassium and sodium in nasal irrigation fluid produce dose-dependent increases in olfactory threshold. Read more.
Sleeve gastrectomy, but not gastric bypass, may be associated with improved odor perception in obese patients. Read more.
Anosmia and hyposmia linked to large increases in 5-year mortality rates among older adults. Read more.
Idiopathic olfactory loss is associated with gray matter loss in cortical areas upstream of the olfactory bulbs. Read more.
Case study: hyposmia due to intracranial aneurysms resolved with flow diversion treatment. Read more.
Surgery restores olfactory function more effectively than corticosteroids in treatment of nasal polyposis. Read more.
Gamma knife radiological resection of olfactory groove meningioma preserves self-reported olfactory function. Read more.
Study finds reduced taste perception in Parkinson's disease and confirms olfactory impairment. Read more.
Mexican study suggests lower specificity and sensitivity than previously found for diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Read more.
Pathology study finds demyelination of olfactory bulb and tract is common in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Read more.
Anosmia and hypoguesia may be early signs of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Read more.
Odor identification deficits correlated with multisystem neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Read more.
Damage to orbitofrontal cortex reduces odor identification and discrimination but not detection in a 40-year-old female. Read more.
Mutations in FEZF1 gene may be responsible for Kallmann syndrome and its associated anosmia. Read more.
Chemotherapy for childhood leukemia has no effect on odor perception or size of olfactory bulbs. Read more.
X-linked mutation in olfactory cyclic nucleotide gated channel subunit CNGA2 found in brothers with congenital anosmia. Read more.
Smell function but not quality of life tracks disease severity in rhinosinusitis. Read more.
Odors activate brain areas associated with fear response in patients with panic disorder. Read more.
Study provides normative values for an olfactory test battery in Turkey. Read more.
In older adults with mild cognitive impairment, better visual and verbal memory is linked to reduced likelihood of severe hyposmia. Read more.
Hyposmia and two other symptoms can help identify Parkinson's disease in its prediagnostic phase. Read more.
Intact olfaction in patients with longstanding parkinsonism may indicate a non-idiopathic Parkinsons's disease pathology. Read more.
No effect of MAO-B inhibitor rasagiline on olfactory function in Parkinson's disease. Read more.
Case reports of unusual transient anosmia during acute phase electroconvulsive therapy. Read more.
MRI and SPECT imaging have high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of olfactory dysfunction in head trauma; even better when combined. Read more.
Smell and taste function impaired in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Read more.
Beta-amyloid deposition in olfactory system is potential molecular marker for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Read more.
Hyperbaric conditions increase olfactory thresholds but have no effect on odor discrimination or identification. Read more.
Patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome score in microsmic range on test of odor identification. Read more.
Impaired odor identification in schizophrenia not likely the result of semantic processing deficits. Read more.
Congenital anosmics have thicker cortex in higher order olfactory processing areas of the brain. Read more.
Olfactory deficits in mild cognitive impairment predict conversion to Alzheimer's dementia. Read more.
Severity of colonic Lewy neuropathology is independent of odor identification impairment in Parkinson's disease. Read more.
Sensory and electrophysiological measures of olfaction may predict transition to psychosis in clinical high-risk individuals. Read more.
Pilot study finds intranasal theophylline treatment safer and more effective than oral delivery for treatment of hyposmia. Read more.
Chemical analysis validates gas-phase odor concentrations in scented pens used for olfactory identification. Read more.
Odor identification impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder correlates with impaired motor implusivity. Read more.
MRI study of Parkinson's disease finds microstructual damage to olfactory tracts. Read more.
Screening of 12 odorants recommends four for inclusion in UK-specific odor identification test. Read more.
Odor valence but not intensity influences olfactory identification ability in patients with, and at risk for, schizophrenia. Read more.
Odor identification lower in Parkinson's disease patients than controls but not correlated to olfactory bulb size. Read more.
Multicenter study shows benefits of training with high concentration odors in recovery from post-infectious smell loss. Read more.
Large study of schizophrenic patients links poorer olfactory performance to symptom severity. Read more.
Impaired olfactory function associated with poorer cognitive function in middle-aged people. Read more.
Olfactory and other non-motor symptoms more common in old-age onset Parkinson's disease patients. Read more.
Carriers of a TRPA1 ion channel variant show increased sensitivity to both smells and pain. Read more.
MRI study reveals gray matter loss in olfactory processing areas of a congenitally anosmic boy. Read more.
Smell training may reduce olfactory deterioration in older people. Read more.
Cisplatin chemotherapy reduces pleasantness of food odors in bronchial cancer patients. Read more.
Series of 100 cases finds no significant change in olfactory status following rhinoplasty. Read more.
Sodium channel mutations that increase nociception also increase odor sensitivity. Read more.
Swimming exercise improves olfactory rehabilitation in laryngectomy patients. Read more.
Smell training improves odor perception in patients with post-traumatic and post infectious olfactory dysfunction. Read more.
Utility of a brief smell test in a multi-ethnic bilingual cohort. Read more.
Routine MRI for isolated idiopathic olfactory loss may be unwarranted due to very low diagnostic yield. Read more.
Reduced olfactory function in patients with bulimia and anorexia. Read more.
Anosmia may be a symptom of superficial siderosis in post-traumatic brain injury. Read more.
Sniffin' Sticks reveal effect of educational level on olfaction in Turkish population. Read more.
Pathological attitudes toward eating predict reduced odor sensitivity. Read more.
Combined course of oral and nasal corticosteroids improves smell in severe sino-nasal polyposis. Read more.
Atrophy of gray and white matter in olfactory brain areas corresponds to duration of anosmia. Read more.
Preserving smell after endoscopic sinus surgery via medialization of the middle nasal turbinate. Read more.
Regular exercise may reduce risk of olfactory impairment in older adults. Read more.
Factors affecting post-operative smell function in surgery for olfactory groove meningioma. Read more.
Comparison of odor identification tests in evaluation of Parkinson's disease patients in India. Read more.
Smell identification ability tracks cognitive and behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Read more.
Case report of anosmia following exposure to a pyrethrin-based insecticide. Read more.
Decreased smell and taste function confirmed in series of patients with total laryngectomy. Read more.
Olfactory dysfunction more severe and prevalent in eosinophilic than noneosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. Read more.
Olfactory outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery in patients with eosinophilic vs noneosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. Read more.
Olfactory deficits in depressed women return to normal following psychotherapy. Read more.
Perception of odor intensity is intact in schizophrenic patients, but hedonic judgements show increased range during acute episodes. Read more.
Spinal anesthesia does not appear to alter performance on a brief test of smell identification. Read more.
Positive link between olfactory improvement and quality of life following treatment for chronic sinusitis and allergic rhinitis. Read more.
Russian study examines olfactory dysfunction in sinusitis patients, pregnant women and schizophrenic patients. Read more.
Study of 201 healthy Dutch children extends normative data for Sniffin' Sticks screening test to pediatric ENT population. Read more.
Survey of patients in a geriatric day hospital finds olfactory function not linked to nutritional status. Read more.
Olfactory dysfunction associated with anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life in rhinitis patients. Read more.
Korean national health survey finds olfactory dysfunction in 4.5% of population; identifies several risk factors. Read more.
Study confirms diagnostic value of smell testing in Parkinson's disease; find three odors that separate patients from controls. Read more.
Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer reduces odor sensitivity and identification ability. Read more.
Case presentation of a patient with anosmia and bilateral polypoid masses in the olfactory clefts. Read more.
Severe hyposmia predicts dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease. Read more.
Olfactory training improves odor discrimination, identification and sensitivity in Parkinson's disease patients. Read more.
Decreased olfaction part of a characteristic neurobehavioral profile in Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Read more.
Smell loss in normal aging is associated with diffuse degenerative changes in brain structure. Read more.
Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure associated with impaired odor identification ability in children. Read more.
Blood chemistry measures associated with performance on Barcelona Smell-Taste Test-24 in adult diabetes patients. Read more.
Upper respiratory tract infections leading cause of olfactory dysfunction in series of 140 Chinese ENT patients. Read more.
Naturally cycling women more sensitive to musk-type odors near ovulation than are women taking oral contraceptives. Read more.
Case report of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia presenting initially as olfactory dysfunction. Read more.
Impaired olfactory function and reduced olfactory bulb volume in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Read more.
Interleukin 6 is elevated in patients with hyposmia. Read more.
Olfactory dysfunction found in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Read more.
Unilateral odor sensitivity and discrimination correlate positively with unilateral olfactory bulb volume. Read more.
Childhood maltreatment associated with reduced olfactory function and olfactory bulb volume in depressed adults. Read more.
Odor detection and identification abilities are reduced in patients with multiple sclerosis. Read more.
Anosmia associated with weaker executive function in traumatic brain injury. Read more.
Parkinson disease deficits on new Japanese smell test correlate with Hoehn and Yahr stages. Read more.
Olfactory impairment reduces migration of thallium-201 from nasal epithelium to olfactory bulb. Read more.
Semi-structured interviews with traumatic brain injury patients show smell loss impacts a range of activities and social roles. Read more.
Sensory testing fails to confirm self-reported enhanced smell acuity in fibromyalgia patients. Read more.
Male congenital anosmics have fewer sexual relationships; females experience reduced security about their partner. Read more.
A majority of cytis fibrosis patients exhibit smell loss, with sensitivity affected more than odor identification. Read more.
New odor discrimination test differentiates anosmics from malingerers. Read more.
Analysis of 3,400 patients reveals that age and sex patterns of olfactory loss vary according to the cause. Read more.
Trauma as a cause of nasal issues including smell loss in athletes. Read more.
Improved olfactory function after nasal sinus surgery but not after nasal septum surgery. Read more.
Reduced odor recognition ability in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and myotonic dystrophy. Read more.
Reduced odor identification ability associated with disease severity and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients. Read more.
Hyposmia in Parkinson's disease is associated with pupillary and cardiovascular parasympathetic dysfunction. Read more.
Olfactory impairment in patients with posterior cortical atrophy resembles that seen in Alzheimer's disease. Read more.
African Americans more likely to suffer from presbyosmia even after potential confounding variables are taken into account. Read more.
Temporal lobe resection in patients with temperal lobe epilepsy results in impaired olfactory function. Read more.
An olfactomotor task reveals implicit olfactory processing in traumatic brain injury patients with anosmia. Read more.
Odor identification deficits observed in fragile X tremor ataxia syndrome (FMR1 premutation carriers). Read more.
ERP brain activation measure shows functional olfactory decline in Alzheimer's disease much earlier than previously observed. Read more.
Nasal nitric oxide levels do not differ between various etiologies of smell loss. Read more.
Profound olfactory dysfunction reported in patients with myasthenia gravis. Read more.
Hyposmia and other nonmotor symptoms may differentiate Parkinson's disease from drug-induced parkinsonism. Read more.
Olfactory bulb volume measured by MRI may predict recovery from post-infectious and post-traumatic smell loss. Read more.
Odor identification ability in multiple sclerosis patients is negatively correlated with severity of white matter lesions. Read more.
Chinese Parkinson's disease patients score lower on smell identification test than do healthy controls. Read more.
Retrospective study of 425 patients with olfactory dysfunction suggests some benefit from systemic corticosteroids. Read more.
Decreased smell function in seasonal allergic rhinitis may be due to inflammation of the epithelium more than the airway obstruction caused by the inflammation. Read more.
Odor identification deficits observed in adolescents chronically exposed to ferro-manganese emissions. Read more.
Ovarian cancer patients undergoing platinum-containing chemotherapy may experience transient olfactory impairment. Read more.
Mild hyposmia observed in familial ataxias may be due to cognitive deficits rather than specifically olfactory impairment. Read more.
Pilot study finds differences in the time course of food appreciation between congenital anosmics and normal controls. Read more.
Daily Vitamin A therapy failed to improve recovery in patients with postinfectious and posttraumamtic smell loss. Read more.
Daily odor training plus topical corticosteroid treatment improves olfactory performance in a range of smell dysfunctions. Read more.
Levels of cAMP and cGMP in patients' parotid saliva vary with etiology of smell and taste disorder. Read more.
Self-assessed olfactory ability is reliable in smell-impaired patients but not in healthy controls. Read more.
Patients with traumatic brain injury are more likely to have deficits in empathy and affect recognition if they also have impaired olfaction. Read more.
By recording intrinsic optical signals from the olfactory epithelium, researchers detect neural response to odor in some functionally anosmic patients. Read more.
A large-scale population study finds olfactory impairment in 0.6% of those under 35 and in 13.9% of those 65 or older. Read more.
In mice with experimentally-induced nasal inflammation, mucus shows elevated K+ and lowered Na+. Nasal irrigation with similar ion concentrations reduces olfactory sensitivity in humans. Read more.
A 57-year-old woman develops anosmia and hypogeusia after abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. Recovers fully in 6 months. Read more.
Sense of smell improves in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis after treatment with levocetirizine. Read more.
A 3-year study finds that severe hyposmia is a significant risk factor for subsequent dementia in Parkinson's disease patients. Read more.
A long-term study of patients with posttraumatic olfactory disorders finds improved function as much as 74 months after trauma. Read more.
Case report: brain surgery to remove a temporoinsular glioma spared the olfactory tracts but resulted in permanent anosmia. Read more.
ER docs at New York's Bellevue Hospital present a case of coup and contrecoup head injury resulting in anosmia. Read more.
Compared to age-matched controls, 32 congenital anosmics showed enhanced social insecurity and increased risk of depressive symptoms and household accidents. Read more.
An electronic nose can detect degredation over time in odors used to test patients for anosmia and hyposmia. Read more.
A patient with extensive bilateral damage to the limbic system shows profound impairments in odor identification and recognition. Read more.
A French team has developed the Lyon Clinical Olfactory Test. It differentiates between anosmia and hyposmia, perception and identification deficits, and Alzheimer's and hyposmic patients. Read more.
Monell Center researchers have developed a scratch-and-sniff smell test using pictures which is suitable for children as young as three years of age. Read more.
A study of 413 patients in Taiwan with olfactory dysfunction examined quality of life issues and emotional coping. The impact of smell loss was greatest in younger patients. Read more.
A study using a brief smell test examined 283 African American aged 55-87. Age and sex predicted scores on the smell test, but education and chronic illness status did not. Read more.
Compared to matched controls, alchoholics showed deficits in odor identification, as well as abnormalities in brain wave response to smells. Read more.
An Individual Importance of Olfaction Questionnaire was given to 235 anosmic or hyposmic patients, and 235 people with normal smell function. Results showed lower scores for anosmics vs. hyposmics, and for smell disorder patients vs. normosmics. Read more.
Norwegian researchers examined odor perception in 240 middle-aged and elderly people. Unawareness of olfactory dysfunction was high in both groups and associated with poorer cognitive performance. Read more.
Australian researchers find that olfactory impairment in people 70 years and older is associated with an elevated odds ratio for depressive symptoms. Read more.
German researchers discover that a misfunctioning gene encoding a voltage-gated sodium channel is responsible for the inability to feel pain as well as for congenital anosmia. Experiments with genetically altered mice confirm the result. Read more.

Parosmia, Dysosmia, Cacosmia & Phantosmia

Progress reported on structured clinical questions that differentiate parosmics from healthy persons and patients with phantosmia. Read more.
Two surgeons draw attention to cases of parosmia after laparoscopic gastric bypass and gastric banding. Read more.

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News & Reviews

A review of smell and taste disorders for the primary care physician. Read more.
A review of olfactory and taste function in autism spectrum disorders. Read more.
A review of olfactory disorders for the clinical rhinologist covers quality of life issues and pathophysiology processes. Read more.
Review of 26 articles finds that osteitis in chronic rhinosinusitis is associated with reduced olfaction. Read more.
Yale study examines possible mechanisms underlying effects of aging on the olfactory system, suggests new research directions. Read more.
Systematic review of 22 studies of smell and taste alterations in chemotherapy patients draws no firm conclusions. Read more.
Literature reviews finds that olfactory dysfunction is an early sign of neurodegenerative disease. Read more.
Revised Portuguese language version of widely used smell test validated in Brazilian population sample. Read more.
Review of olfaction in physiology and disease finds olfactory dysfunction to be clinically significant and likely to grow in prevalence. Read more.
Large-scale review of scientific literature finds olfaction key to human evolution and quality of life. Read more.
A review of plasticity and neurogenesis in the human olfactory system, focusing on the olfactory bulb. Read more.
Subjective and objective effects on quality of life assessed in 1,000 patients with olfactory dysfunction. Read more.
A review of the genetics, diagnosis, and treatment of Kallmann syndrome in women. Read more.
Literature review of olfaction in affective and anxiety disorders reveals mixed results. Read more.
A review of olfaction in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders finds changes in function in disorders with dopaminergic pathology. Read more.
Canadian researchers review the decline in smell and taste in Alzheimer's disease and stroke with attention to its nutritional consequences. Read more.
Italian researchers review neurological diseases preceded or accompanied by olfactory dysfunction. Read more.
The Wall Street Journal's Ellen Byron describes ways to fight age-related decline in the sense of smell. Read more.

Filmmaker and congenital anosmic Jacob LaMendola creates a short film featuring people with acquired and congenital anosmia. View it here.


Two otolaryngologists review for plastic surgeons the importance of conducting pre-operative baseline smell testing. Read more.

A brief review of the olfactory system and its disorders by a leading smell researcher. Intended for a neurological audience. Read more.
A review of findings that olfactory loss and conditions such as parosmia are associated with a reduction in olfactory bulb volume. Read more.
Richard Doty reviews the neurobiology of smell loss in Parkinson's disease. Read more.
Two researchers at the VCU School of Medicine review the possibility of olfactory epithelial transplantation as a means of restoring smell. Read more.


Disorders of Odor Perception is updated frequently. Items are entered chronologically with newest items at the top of each column.

Disorders of Odor Perception offers links to the latest science and news about olfactory dysfunction. It does not endorse the material on the linked sites, nor does it offer medical advice. For medical advice about disorders of smell, consult your physician.

Copyright 2017 by Synesthetics, Inc.